In the north east region work will be done on the A90, the M90 and the A96, while in the north west parts of the A82/83 and the A9 near Pitlochry will benefit.
Work in the south east region will include improvements to the M8, the M9, M80 and A702, while in the south west parts of the A75, A76, A77, the M8 around Glasgow and the M80 near Glasgow will be resurfaced.
The work is to be carried out early in the new year, with Transport Minister Keith Brown stating: "Our strategic road network plays a vitally important role in supporting our key economic drivers - tourism, food and drink and the renewables industry.
"We have already committed £655m to maintaining and improving roads in 2012-13, directly employing over 1,000 people in our operating companies and supporting a further 350 jobs through the supply chain. This additional £5 million will be used to replace around 30 kilometres of worn-out road surfacing across all four trunk road regions.
"Given the recent National Road Maintenance Review finding that every £1 spent on road maintenance generates a £1.50 benefit across the wider economy, this committed spend demonstrates clearly that this Government will invest in works which deliver maximum value for Scotland's taxpayers. These shovel-ready schemes will be delivered in early 2013."